The HOA Dominates

HOA Stats: Average HOA Fees & Number of HOAs by State (2023)

HOA Statistics

A homeowner’s association (HOA) is an organization that makes and enforces rules for a group of residents in a subdivision, community, or residential building. HOAs collect fees (or dues) from their members to pay for the maintenance of common areas and the upkeep of facilities.

In this article, we’ll look at how popular HOAs are, the average cost of living in an HOA, and more:

Key HOA Stats

  • Approximately 26% of the US population lives in HOA communities.
  • Over 74 million people in the US live in a homeowner association community.

74 Million People Live in HOAs

  • 67% of newly completed homes in 2021 are part of HOA communities, up 18% from 2011.
  • Houses in HOAs are worth 5-6% more than similar homes outside of HOAs.
  • Typical HOA membership fees for single-family homeowners is $200-$300/month.

Types of Community Associations

In real estate, the term homeowner's association is used regardless of whether the membership comprises residents who own single-family homes or condominiums.

HOAs consisting of single-family homes account for 60% and condominium communities account for 38% of community associations in the United States. Cooperatives (co-ops) account for 2%.

Types of Community Associations

Here is a breakout of the percentage of residential property types by association types:

Type Percentage
Homeowners Associations 60%
Condominium Communities 38%
Cooperatives 2%


Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

Co-ops operate differently than standard condo HOAs. In a co-op, the building is owned by a corporation. Rather than traditional ownership, residents own shares in the corporation and have the right to occupy their units.

Legal structure aside, co-op owners pay a maintenance fee for the upkeep of the building and shared spaces, just like homeowners in other types of community associations.

How Many People Live in HOAs?

Total Number of Community Associations

The total number of associations has also increased. In 1970, there were around 10,000 community associations in the US. In 2020 that number increased to over 355,000, over a 35x increase.

Below you can see the total number of associations in the US over time which includes standard HOAs, condominium communities, and co-ops:

Number of Community Associations in U.S.

Here is a table showing the total number of HOAs:

Year Community Associations
1970 10,000
1980 36,000
1990 130,000
2000 222,500
2010 311,600
2020 355,000


Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

Number of People Living in HOAs

About 26% of the US population lives in HOA communities. Community associations have grown in popularity. The number of residents living in them increased from 2.1 million in 1970 to 74.1 million in 2020, a 35x increase. In every 10-year period since 1970, we can see ample growth, and most recently, from 2010 to 2020, the number of HOA residents grew by 20%.

How Many People Live in HOAs

Here is a table showing the number of people living in HOAs since 1970:

Year Residents
1970 2,100,000
1980 9,600,000
1990 29,600,000
2000 45,200,000
2010 62,000,000
2020 74,100,000


Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

Total Number of Housing Units in HOA Communities

As the number of residents and communities grew over time, so did the number of housing units that are part of HOA communities. In 1970 there were around 700,000 housing units in HOAs in the US. This number grew to over 27 million housing units in 2020, a 39x increase.

How Many Housing Units in HOAs

Here is a table showing the total number of housing units in HOAs:

Year Housing Units
1970 700,000
1980 3,600,000
1990 11,600,000
2000 17,800,000
2010 24,800,000
2020 27,500,000


Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

Recent Growth of HOA Communities

Today HOAs in the US are more popular than ever. As the number of newly built homes that are part of HOAs increases, we can expect the number of residents living in HOA communities across the US to grow, too.Over the past 10 years, the percentage of newly built homes that are part of a homeowner’s association has increased from 49% in 2011 to 67% in 2021.

Percentage of New Construction Homes in HOAs

Here is a breakdown of total number of new construction housing units with HOAs:

Year % of New Construction
2011 49%
2012 54%
2013 58%
2014 59%
2015 60%
2016 59%
2017 61%
2018 64%
2019 62%
2020 65%
2021 67%


Source: US Census

HOA Growth by Region

New homes that are a part of a homeowner association are growing fastest in the southern and western United States.

HOA Percentage of New Construction

Here is a table showing the homeowners associations, by region, for new construction homes:

Region % of New Construction 2021
Northeast 38%
Midwest 51%
South 72%
West 71%


Source: US Census

HOA Popularity by State

In Florida, Colorado, and Vermont, over 40% of the population lives in an HOA. These three states are where HOAs are the most common. HOAs are also common in California, New Hampshire, Washington, Arizona, and Illinois, with each of these states having over 30% of its population living in a community association. The state where HOAs are the least common is Mississippi, where only 3% of the population resides within an HOA.

The following list shows the percentage of each state's total population that lives in an HOA:

State % Population Living in HOA
Alabama 10.0%
Alaska 13.0%
Arizona 30.5%
Arkansas 31.0%
California 35.6%
Colorado 40.1%
Connecticut 12.9%
District of Columbia 20.0%
Delaware 41.0%
Florida 44.5%
Georgia 21.8%
Hawaii 20.0%
Idaho 27.0%
Illinois 30.0%
Indiana 12.5%
Iowa 15.0%
Kansas 10.0%
Kentucky 11.0%
Louisiana 6.0%
Maine 21.0%
Maryland 17.0%
Massachusetts 23.8%
Michigan 14.1%
Minnesota 26.7%
Mississippi 3.0%
Missouri 14.9%
Montana 27.0%
Nebraska 15.0%
Nevada 16.5%
New Hampshire 35.0%
New Jersey 16.4%
New Mexico 14.0%
New York 18.8%
North Carolina 25.9%
North Dakota 13.0%
Ohio 13.8%
Oklahoma 7.0%
Oregon 13.1%
Pennsylvania 10.3%
Puerto Rico 3.0%
Rhode Island 27.0%
South Carolina 25.9%
South Dakota 11.0%
Tennessee 10.1%
Texas 20.6%
Utah 19.1%
Vermont 46.0%
Virginia 23.2%
Washington 31.0%
West Virginia 5.0%
Wisconsin 12.7%
Wyoming 17.0%


Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

HOA Fees

While most residents enjoy the amenities and being part of an association, one potential downside is the cost. Monthly fees depend on the neighborhood or building’s location and the extent and nature of the amenities offered.

Homeowner Association Fees in Top Metro Areas

Let's look at regional differences among some of the top cities in the United States.

HOA Fees by City

Here are the mean monthly HOA fees for the metro areas:

  • Atlanta: $117
  • Boston: $444
  • Chicago: $312
  • Dallas: $98
  • Detroit: $114
  • Houston: $127
  • Los Angeles: $366
  • Miami: $283
  • New York City: $653
  • Philadelphia: $171
  • Phoenix: $148
  • San Francisco: $390
  • Seattle: $189
  • Washington DC: $193

Source: American Housing Survey

Unsurprisingly, the New York and San Francisco metro areas had the highest monthly association fees. The two markets consistently rank as some of the most expensive to purchase real estate in the United States. In expensive cities, it's common to pay over $400/month.

Average Homeowner Association Fees By Property Type

In addition to location, the type of community association can impact the fees. For example, condo associations often have higher dues because they typically offer more amenities like fitness centers, concierges, valets, etc. Here's how average single-family home and condo association fees stack up across the US:

  • Single-family homeowners: $200-$300/month
  • Condo owners: $300-$400/month

Keep in mind these are general estimates from a small sample size of communities across the country. Fees can range from as little as $50/month to over $1000/month.

HOA Pros

As HOAs have risen in popularity over the years, it begs the question, what advantages are there for homeowners who choose to live in an HOA community? Here are five of the most common benefits:

Stabilized Property Values

Having a well-maintained home in a well-kept neighborhood is attractive to buyers. With HOA residents held accountable for maintaining their properties and common areas, property values stay more consistent. According to a study at George Mason University:

  • Properties in an HOA sell for 5-6% more than similar homes not part of an HOA.

Source: Cato Institute

Reduced Maintenance & Upkeep

Having a community that takes care of landscaping, garbage collection, and more can ease the challenges associated with home ownership. Living in a well-maintained neighborhood is aesthetically better and more effortless in which to live.

Access To Shared Amenities

Amenities vary from association to association. Standard features include swimming pools, barbecue pits, neighborhood parks, walking trails, and sports courts.

Standards & Dispute Settlement

Homeowners must comply with guidelines called Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CC&Rs), which leads to fewer problems between neighbors. For example, most associations forbid loud, late-night parties or brown lawns. Association boards mediate disputes between neighbors and enforce consequences when things go wrong.

Community Engagement

HOAs can offer a real sense of togetherness, and some organize community gatherings and activities. Many members enjoy the increased opportunities to socialize or be a part of something bigger.

  • 89% of HOA residents rate their overall experience as 'very good' or 'good' (70%) or 'neutral' (19%).

Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

HOA Cons

While HOAs offer many benefits, they may not be perfect for everyone. Here are some of the most common drawbacks of living in an HOA:

Guidelines and Standards Can Be Restrictive

Some homeowners may not like restrictions on the types of vehicles they can park in their driveway, what colors they can paint their home, or the types of trees or bushes they can have in their front yard. For those who don't like being told what to do, HOAs may feel restrictive. Remember that guidelines vary depending on the community; some are stricter than others.

HOA Fees Can Be Expensive

One should consider the extra cost of HOA fees and determine if the services provided are worth it. When residents were asked how the felt about the value they received versus the cost:

  • 62% of HOA residents believe they are paying 'just the right amount' or 'too little.'

Of course, some may feel they are paying too much.

Source: Foundation for Community Association Research

The HOA May Not Be Well-Run

Not all HOAs are adequately managed. One potential downside is being part of a homeowners association where a few members refuse to pay fees, or the HOA has problems enforcing the rules.


That's our summary and key statistics for HOAs in 2022. With now more than 1 in 4 Americans living in an HOA, it’s clear that they have grown massively over the past 50 years. In addition, based on construction trends, the popularity of HOAs is set to continue to expand into the future.